## 考点：健康保健类阅读

• Doctors recognize obesity as a health problem. So why is it so hard for them to talk to their patients about it?
The results of two surveys, one of primary care physicians and the other of patients, found that while most doctors want to help patients lose weight and think it is their responsibility to do so, they often don’t know what to say.
So while doctors may tell patients they are overweight, the conversation often ends there, said Christine C. Ferguson, director of the Stop Obesity Alliance. Without being told about options for diabetes, she said. “Doctors don’t feel they have good information to give. They felt they didn’t have adequate tools to address this problem.”
The lack of dialogue hurts patients, too. The patient survey, of over 1,000 adults, found that most overweight patients don’t even know at they’re too heavy. Only 39 percent of overweight people surveyed had ever been told by a health care provider that they were overweight.
Of those who were told they were obese, 90 percent were also told by their doctors to lose weight, the survey found. In fact most have tried to lose weight and may have been successful in the past — and many are still trying, the survey found. And many understand that losing even a small amount of weight can have a positive impact on their health and reduce their risk of obesity-related diseases like hypertension and diabetes.
Dr. William Bestermann Jr., medical director of Holston Medical Group, in Kingsport, Tenn., which ranks 10th in obesity among metropolitan areas in the United States, said the dialogue had to be an ongoing one and could not be dropped after just one mention of the problem. “If you’re going to be successful with helping your patients lose weight, you’re going to have to talk to them at virtually every visit about their progress, and find something to encourage them about, find progress in some aspect of their care and coach them,” he said.
He acknowledged that many doctors tend to be optimistic.
“Part of this is that there’s this common belief, and doctors are burdened by it, too, that heavy people are weak-willed and just don’t have any willpower and are self-indulgent and all that business,” he said. “If you think that way, you’re not going to spend time having a productive conversation.”
61．What is most probably the Stop Obesity Alliance, as in Paragraph 3?
A．An organization of doctors specializing in obesity.
B．An organization of patients suffering from obesity.
C．A research group that conducts special surveys about overweight people.
D．A research group dealing with doctor – patient relationship.
62．How many of the patients surveyed have been advised by their doctors to lose weight?
63．What can be inferred about obesity patients in Paragraph 5?
A．They are not as hopeless as doctors think they are.
B．Most of them have tried hard to lose weight, but in vain.
C．Without their doctors’ constant coaching, there is little chance of their succeeding in losing weight.
D．Most of them have just given up their hope of becoming less heavy.
64．According to the passage, which factor contributes to the lack of dialogue between doctors and patients?
A．Most doctors just never think of warning their patients about their weight problem.
B．Many doctors find it difficult to persuade overweight people to lose weight.
C．Most patients are too weak – willed to do anything about their weight.
D．Many patients tend not to trust their doctors about their weight problem.
65．Which of the following is the best title of the passage?
A．Obesity in the U.S.
B．Trouble of overweight Americans
C．Talk more, help better
D．Doctors or patients – who to bear more blame?

• 　　Sports can help you keep fit and get in touch with nature .However, whether you are on the mountains, in the waves, or on the grassland, you should be aware that your sport of choice might have great influence on the environment.
Some sports are resource-hungry. Golf, as you may know, eats up not only large areas of countryside, but also tons of water. Besides, all sorts of chemicals and huge amounts of energy are used to keep its courses（球场） in good condition. This causes major environmental effects. For example, in the dry regions of Portugal and Spain, golf is often held responsible for serious water shortage in some local areas.
There are many environment-friendly sports. Power walking is one of them that you could take up today. You don’t need any special equipment except a good pair of shoes; and you don’t have to worry about resources and your purse. Simple and free, power walking can also keep you fit. If you walk regularly, it will be good for your heart and bones. Experts say that 20 minutes of power walking daily can make you feel less anxious, sleep well and have better weight control.
Whatever sport you take up, you can make it greener by using environment-friendly equipment and buying products made from recycled materials. But the final goal should be “green gyms”. They are better replacements for traditional health clubs and modern sports centers. Members of green gyms play sports outdoors, in the countryside or other open spaces. There is no special requirement for you to start your membership. And best of all, it’s free.
64. Which of the following is the author most probably in favor of?
A. Cycling around a lake.         B. Motor racing in the desert.
C. Playing basketball in a gym.    D. Swimming in a sports center.
65. What do we know about golf from the passage?
A. It is popular in Portugal and Spain.
B. It causes water shortages around the world.
C. It pollutes the earth with chemicals and wastes.
D. It needs water and electricity to keep its courses green.
66. The author uses power walking as an example mainly because______.
A. it is an outdoor sport     B. it improves our health
C. it uses fewer resources    D. it is recommended by experts
67. The author writes the passage to_______.
A. show us the function of major sports
B. encourage us to go in for green sports
C. discuss the major influence of popular sports
D. introduce different types of environment-friendly sports

• Want to lose weight? Try eating. That’s one of the ways being developed by scientists experimenting with foods that trick the body into feeling full.
At he Institute of Food Research in Norwich, England, food expert Peter Wilde and his colleagues are developing foods that slow down the digestive system, which then sends a signal to the brain that stops appetite. “That fools you into thinking you’ve eaten far too much when you really haven’t,” said Wilde. From his studies on fat digestion, he said it should be possible to make foods, from bread to yoghurt, that make it easier to diet. While the research is still in its early stages, Wilde’s approach to controlling appetite is one that some doctors say could be a key to solving the problem of obesity.
“Being able to switch off appetite would be a big help for people having trouble losing weight,” said Steve Bloom, a professor of investigative medicine at London’s Imperial College, who is not connected to Wilde’s research. Bloom said that regulating appetite through foods is theoretically possible. But Bloom warned that controlling appetite may be very challenging. “The body has lots of things to prevent its regulatory systems from being tricked,” he said.
Wilde’s research makes use of the body’s ways of digesting fat. Fat normally gets broken down in the first part of the small intestines (肠道). When you eat a high-fat meal, however, the body can only digest the fat entirely further down in the intestines, which then causes the body to produce a kind of chemical to stop the appetite.
Wilde’s approach copies what happens with a high-fat meal. He coats fat droplets (滴) in foods with modified proteins from plants, so it takes longer for the chemical that breaks down fat to reach it. That means that the fat isn’t digested until it hits the far reaches of the intestines. At that point, intestinal cells send a signal telling the brain it’s full. Even though the body hasn’t had a high-fat meal, it stops the appetite as if it has. If the fat had been digested earlier in the intestines, no such signal would be sent.
51. According to Wilde’s research, what could people do if they want to lose weight?
A. Eat more bread and yoghurt.                    B. Trick the body by eating nothing.
C. Have foods with fat droplets coated.         D. Control their digestive system strictly.
52. The underlined word “obesity” in Para. 2 most probably means “________”.
A. being too fat                            B. eating too much food
C. stopping appetite                D. being unhealthy
53. What can be inferred about Professor Bloom’s opinion towards Wilde’s approach?
A. It won’t work since the body’s regulatory systems will never be tricked.
B. It is sure to switch off the appetite of people with a weight problem.
C. It sounds terrible because regulating appetite through foods is not practical at all.
D. It’s no that easy to trick the body so more research should be done.
54. Which of the following is TRUE about Wilde’s approach?
A. A kind of chemical is added to make a high-fat meal less fatty.
B. Fat is digested earlier and the body sends a signal telling the brain it’s full.
C. Fat won’t get broken down in the first part of the small intestines.
D. The chemical that breaks down fat will not reach the fat.
55. The passage is written to ________.
A. give advice on how to stop eating high-fat meals
B. introduce a research on controlling appetite
C. discuss the argument between two professors
D. show different ways to trick the body

• Babies are born yogis（瑜伽练习者）．Once we were all able to pull our toes up by our ears and laugh about it．Then we aged, got injured, and began carrying stress in our shoulders and back．In short, we lost our balance．
Yoga（瑜伽） is an ancient practice that helps create a sense of union in body, mind, and spirit．It brings us balance．I was seriously out of balance when I started practicing yoga in 1999．I had plantar fascitis（足底筋膜炎）in both feet, and my doctor had warned me against all the things I loved to do: walking, hiking, and playing tennis．I was desperate for exercise．Yoga became my salvation and even enhanced my other fitness activities．I practice yoga at least twice a week, but I consider yoga to be part of my daily life because after a while you no longer just practice yoga—you love it．
Yoga becomes part of your physical life．Your body grows stronger, more toned, and more flexible as you move from one pose to the other．I spent a week in Mexico at a yoga retreat, and it was the first vacation on which I lost weight．“Rather than building muscle, yoga builds muscle tone,” says Shakta Kaur Khalsa, author of the K．I．S．S．Guide to Yoga．“Because yoga helps maintain a balanced metabolism （新陈代谢), it also helps to regulate weight．Additionally, yoga stretches muscles lengthwise, causing fat to be removed around the cells．” I do yoga poses throughout the day．After hours at my computer, I stretch my stiff shoulders and arms．When I need a boost of energy, I do energizing poses．When I am feeling exhausted at the end of the day, I do restorative poses．
Yoga becomes part of your mental life．Yoga teaches you to focus on breathing while you hold the poses．This attention to breath is calming; it dissolves stress and anxiety．I use yogic breathing on the tennis courts, in the dentist’s chair, and in traffic jams．You should always leave a yoga practice feeling energized, not tired．If you feel tired after yoga, it means you spent the time “fighting” yourself, trying to force yourself into poses．In yoga, you “surrender” to the pose by letting go of the tension．
Yoga becomes part of your spiritual life．Yoga is practiced by people from all religions; it is not restricted to any religious group．Yoga teaches “right” living in how we deal with ourselves and others．As I work on a difficult pose, I learn patience, forgiveness, and the value of gentleness．Yoga advocates proper eating, but you don’t have to be a vegetarian to practice yoga．
72．What would be the best title for this passage?
A．What’s Yoga?                B．How I Do Yoga Poses
C．The Benefits of Yoga          D．The Varieties of Yoga
73．According to the third paragraph, yoga can help people __________．
A．grow taller                     B．lose weight
C．become flexible in thinking           D．make more friends
74．People feel tired after yoga because __________．
A．they consume energy in practicing yoga
B．they respond well to yoga poses
C．they spend too much time on yoga
D．they force themselves into yoga poses
75．If this passage continues, what will the writer most probably write about in the next paragraph?
A．Yoga as a means to keep fit．
B．Different yoga poses．
C．Popularity of yoga all over the world．
D．Encouraging people to do yoga．

• Cricket
Cricket is a game played between two teams, generally of 11 members each. Essentially, it is single combat, in which an individual batsman does battle against an individual bowler, who has helpers known as fielders. The bowler throws the ball from one end of the 22-yard pitch in an attempt to dismiss (send out) the batsman by hitting a target known as the wicket at the other end, or by causing the batsman to hit the ball into the air into a fielder's grasp. The batsman attempts to defend the wicket with the bat and to score runs, by striking the ball to the field boundary, or far enough from the fielders to allow the batsman to run to the other end of the pitch before the ball can be returned. There are always two batsmen on the field, each to take a turn as required. When all but one of the batting team, altogether eleven of them, have been dismissed, the teams' roles are switched. After all the players required to bat on both sides have done so either once or twice (which can take from a few hours to five days) the total number of runs accumulated determines the winner. But sometimes there isn't one.
Important terms of cricket:
Batsman: A player who uses a bat to hit, or guide the ball after it has been bowled, usually for the purpose of scoring runs.
Boundary: Indicates the outer limit of the playing area.
Bowler: Refers to a player who’s primarily good at throwing a ball to a batsman. The basic goal is to get the ball past the batsman and break the wicket behind him with it and thus cause the batsman to be dismissed.
Catch: If a fieldsman catches a struck ball before it touches the ground, that is a catch and the batsman is out.
Fielder: A player placed within the field, with the object of stopping the batting team from scoring runs, also called “fieldsman”.
Four: If the ball is hit to bounce or roll over the boundary, this is a "boundary four"; four runs are added.
Run: The method of scoring during a game of cricket. Also refers to a single unit of score.
Six: If the batsman hits the ball clear over the boundary on the fly, six runs are added to the score.
Umpire: A person appointed to rule on plays in cricket.
64. What’s the right order of the four kinds of people (1—4 ) on the cricket ground (see picture on the right ) ?
A. bowler; umpire; batsman; fielder          B. batsman; umpire; fielder; bowler
C. fielder; bowler; batsman; umpire          D. bowler; umpire; fielder; batsman
65. What happens when the batsman hits the ball, which first touches the ground inside the pitch and rolls quickly over the boundary to one of the viewers outside the cricket ground?
A. The batsman gets dismissed.             B. The batting side gets four runs.
C. The batting team gets six runs.           D. The bowler’s team gets four runs.
66. We can learn from the passage that ________.
A. the side which has all its batsmen dismissed wins the game
B. the side which dismisses all batsmen of the other side wins the game
C. the side which gets more runs than the other side wins the game
D. the side which dismisses more of the other side’s batsmen wins the game

• If you want to keep healthy, you should have good habits. What is a habit? It is something we do very often. We don’t even think when we do it. It has become a part of our lives.
“Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” This is an old English saying. Do you know what it means? It means that we must go to bed early at night and get up early in the morning. If we do, we shall be healthy, rich and clever.
Is this true? Perhaps it is. We know the body must have enough sleep. Boys and girls need eight or nine hours’ sleep every day.
Some people go to bed late at night and get up late in the morning. This is a very bad habit. Then you will not think or do your work well. Of course, you can’t be healthy, wealthy or wise.
When we get up early in the morning, we can go out and do morning exercises. Exercise means doing things with the body. Walking, running jumping, swimming, and playing ball games are all exercise. If we don’t exercise, our body will become weak.
Exercise helps the blood (血液) to move around inside our body. Blood takes food to all parts of our body.
Our body also needs air to breathe. Without air, we will die. We must have lots of clean fresh air if we want to be healthy. That is why many people like to go out to do morning exercise.
【小题1】From the passage we know that it is good for our health to ____ . A．eat a lot" N _- I, \0 ^+ g2 g$U9 G B．go to bed early! f h6 L1 R$ ^( h C．get up late/ D+ C% f' P* G D．go to bed late. E1 T! I Q2 H% O
【小题2】How long should young boys and girls need to sleep a day? A．More than ten hours. S5 W" b& J0 \6 Z) U" P$h B．Over eleven hours.0 a* ^" Q/ L( J C．Less than seven hours. ! \0 a, A- F U: J D．Eight hours or so.- j. _! B. j8 \, A 【小题3】If we want to keep healthy, we must ____ . A．eat more food& c5 " j. a1 T' Q9 O8 L: W4 f B．sleep more/ H' N; ?: U; ^" M$ T$c( W; ^ C．get up late- d- b) X% $$Z3 Y8 a+ j1 ], N, L' C D．take enough exercise" + S( Y S* Z8 X, Z* F9 e 【小题4】Which of the following habits is NOT GOOD? A．Don’t go to bed until twelve o’clock..( ?. S3 S6 \, _6 P B．Take a walk after supper.! [% H6 G# X' d3 F! E/ L C．Run in the open air early in the morning.% F! S% M, W& C6 ? D．Climb hills for half an hour early in the morning.' d5 [+ S% Z1 P4 ]4 P7 \* I9 i d 【小题5】 Which sport is NOT mentioned in the passage? A．Jumping./ ) a) H4 L" _ B．Swimming.% Q: @# A7 Q/ R E" j C．Riding.+ [9 _# R W0 ) W% C9 c( F D．Running./ D5 G0 E! @" P N • Bean and other seed shoots are also known as sprouts (新芽). The dry bean seeds contain a store of nutrients just waiting to be released when they sprout. Under the right conditions they will germinate (发芽)。 As they grow, the food value of the seeds is multiplied into vitamins, minerals (矿物质) and other nutrients. This happens almost overnight! It is easy to grow your own sprouts, but you need to buy your seeds from supermarkets or health food stores. Seeds for planting in the garden are often powdered with chemicals, so when becoming sprouts they are not safe to eat. Try growing sprouts from a variety of beans and seeds. You will find different sprouts at different stages. Bean sprouts are best when they are about three centimeters long. Wheat and sunflower sprouts taste best when the sprouts and the seeds are of the same length. If the sunflower sprout is too long it leaves a funny stinging feeling in the throat after eating. Alfalfa sprouts are best when their small leaves are well developed. Pea and soybean sprouts are good long or short. If you leave your sprouts in filtered sunlight for a few hours, the leaves will turn green as chlorophyll (叶绿素) is added. Eating sprouts with green leaves benefits your blood, cells, and the digestive system. 【小题1】Which of the following sprouts taste good whether they are long or short? A．Soybean sprouts; g; h5 g; G2 [/ U5 @ B．Sunflower sprouts" H3 O5 X& N7 ^! P. F* B. Y& E C．Alfalfa sprouts / S& ?'$$ J, D8 c" P D．Wheat sprouts0 e: @/ [ J& L 【小题2】As sprouts grow, the food value of the seeds will_____.  A．increase. B3 A+ O A3 X9 @ B．decrease0 ?$ e+ ^+ Y2 X( S C．remain the same4 L7 E3 I$f! e- L D．lose1 C3 Z+ I9 R( ?' C Z 【小题3】From the passage we know that______.  A．Long sunflower sprouts taste better than short ones9 L( f2 h, A! C/ W( b6 c. ] B．Eating too long sunflower sprouts will make you feel uncomfortable in the throat% A1 ^, M6 [& i. W9 h9 U# S C．Eating sprouts with green leaves will be harmful to your health7 D0 + ^* Y" [- W$ B D．It takes a long time for the food value of the seeds to multiply. P2 i2 R9 S( i( ]% c6 O D+ Z
【小题4】Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage? A．Sprouts of seeds for planting in the garden may not be safe to eat.8 E6 P- \9 d! a- O2 @ B．Alfalfa sprouts taste best when their small leaves are more fully grown. B0 R' b+ I* \* Y C．All sprouts taste best during the early stage of their growth., G+ d, ]) M% ^- X D．Sunlight will make the leaves of sprouts green.2 A# ^+ W$N9 8 K • When thinking about quitting(停止) smoking… List all the reasons why you want to quit. Every night before going to bed, repeat one of the reasons 10 times. Decide positively that you want to quit. Try to avoid negative thoughts about how difficult it might be. Develop strong personal reasons as well as your health and responsibility to others. For example, think of all the time you waste taking cigarette breaks, rushing out to buy a pack, hunting a light, etc. Set a date for quitting --- perhaps a special day like your birthday, a holiday. If you smoke heavily at work, quit during your vacation. Make the date seriously, and don't let anything change it. Begin to condition yourself physically; start a modest (适当的) exercise; drink more water; get plenty of rest. Immediately after quitting... The first few days after you quit, spend as much free time as possible in places where smoking is prohibited, e.g. libraries, museums, theatres, department stores, etc. Drink large quantities of water and fruit juice. Try to avoid wine, coffee, and other drinks which remind you of cigarette smoking. Start a conversation with someone instead of a match for a cigarette. If you miss the feeling of having a cigarette in your hand, play with something else - a pencil, a pen, a ruler. If you miss having something in your mouth, try a fake (仿制的) cigarette. 【小题1】According to the passage, which of the following statements is true? A．Whenever you feel like a cigarette, try to forget it by sleeping.2 K; j4 \+ d# O0 i8 P B．Try to start a conversation before asking for a light.; [. g7 F( D4 j" a( F C．If you miss the feeling of having a cigarette in your mouth, play with a pen.' A7 d6 J8 b; J O( ]7 G$ h+ e D．Every night before going to bed, repeat all the reasons 10 times.: E' h# J J& C, P
【小题2】 From the passage, we know smokers __________. A．should drink a lot of coffee * M! \2 S. H1 @+ O& j a B．have to stop to smoke from time to time& e6 i& D1 F- T! I3 h3 F C．should drink a lot of wine , [. E' L0 T1 E3 g8 \" [7 C9 B D．should not do any exercise, S- R( \5 L- I; H& M6 \1 g
【小题3】According to the passage, what does the underlined word “prohibited” mean? A．forbidden' G6 O& L- P8 O3 \ B．allowed7 D/ S7 j2 N4 H- ? C．received% B7 D' ]' A" g8 X/ \ D．welcomed$U$ g4 Y# b8  S# V* [; Y
【小题4】 If the passage is in a newspaper, which section is it in? A．Sports" _1 N: M/ H4 P. G B．News/ X! G- H/ B( g. @6 ?+ M C．Health- d0 [. [4 h2 U) G/ a D．Culture: Z9 G# M& S3 K: L- b' I5 h; L" O

• Do you love the holidays, but hate gaining weight? You are not alone. Holidays are times for  celebrating. Many people are worried about their weight. With proper planning, though, it is possible to keep normal weight during the holidays. The idea is to enjoy the holidays but not to eat too much. You don’t have to turn away from the foods that you enjoy.
Here are some tips for preventing（阻止） weight gain and maintaining（维持） physical fitness:
Don’t skip meals. Before you leave home, have a small, low-fat meal or snack. This may help to avoid getting too excited before delicious foods.
Control the amount of food. Use a small plate (about 10 inches) and put aside the large ones that may encourage you to "load up". You should be most comfortable eating an amount of food about the size of your fist.
Begin with soup and fruit or vegetables. Fill up beforehand on water-based soup and raw fruit or vegetables. Or drink a large glass of water before you eat to help you to feel full.
Stick to physical activity. Don’t let exercise take a break during the holidays. A 20-minute walk help to burn off excess calories.
Avoid(避免) high-fat foods. Dishes that look oily or creamy may have large amount of fat. Choose lean meat (瘦肉).Fill your plate with salad and green vegetables. Use lemon juice instead of creamy food.
【小题1】Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the passage? A．You should never eat delicious foods. B．Drinking some water or soup before eating helps you to eat less. C．Holidays are happy days but they may bring you weight problems. D．Physical exercise can reduce the chance of putting on weight.
【小题2】Which of the following can NOT help people to lose weight according to the passage? A．Eating lean meat. B．Creamy food. C．Eating raw fruit or vegetables. D．Physical exercise.
【小题3】Many people can’ t control their weight during the holidays mainly because they__________. A．can’ t help being tempted to eat constantly B．take part in too many parties C．enjoy delicious foods sometimes D．can’t help turning away from foods.
【小题4】If the passage appeared(出现) in a newspaper , which section（专栏） is the most suitable one ? A．Holidays and Festivals section B．Health and Fitness section C．Fashion section D．Student Times Club section.
【小题5】What is the best title of the passage ? A．How to avoid holiday feasting and celebrating . B．Do’ s and don’ ts for keeping slim and fit. C．How to avoid weight gain over holidays. D．Wonderful holidays, boring weight.

• In the United States, 30 percent of the people have a “weight problem”. To many people the cause is obvious (明显的): they eat too much. But scientific evidence (证据) does little to support this idea. Going back to America of 1910, we find that people were thinner than today, yet they ate more food. In those days people worked harder physically, walked more, used machines much less, and didn’t watch television.
Several modern studies, moreover, have shown that fatter people don’t eat more on average than thinner people. A 1979 study of 3,545 London office workers showed that fat people eat less than slim (苗条的) people.
Studies also show that slim people are more active than fat people. A study by a research group at Stanford University found the following interesting facts:
The more the man ran, the greater loss of the body fat.
The more they ran, the greater increase in food intake.
Thus, those who ran the most ate the most, yet lost the greatest amount of body fat.
【小题1】 Nowadays many Americans have the problem that ______. A．they are too slim 0 L& V7 h/ D% C5 Y& h' O+ J B．they work too hard4 i. T; Z- P- F9 E" [ C．they are too fat- J. G8 G" ^7 e6 Z$b% C8 U` D．they lose too much body fat! ]) g0 d T3 A- L9 i 【小题2】 According to the passage, how many people in 900 Americans have a “weight problem”? A．150.3 f3 g( E7 _, C- f B．300.( g. j' P0 W. Z' \. [5 g C．600. B9 T! P- Q6 Q) _ D．270.2 a7 j' @$ a' i* ^
【小题3】Is there any scientific evidence to support the idea that eating too much is the cause of a “weight problem”? A．Yes, there is plenty of evidence.* h, D0 O4 G' \; T! S; F0 N) F\$ N5 f B．Of course, there is some evidence to support this.1 U( W- ^6 W' Q4 D C．There is hardly any scientific evidence to support this.* _" B- T) [0 N# a5 g& a9 B0 a2 d9 D D．We are not sure.1 G- c2 X! [3 e9 E0 H8 I) T
【小题4】The Americans in 1910 ________.  A．ate more food and had more physical activities8 A8 B) I% a+ g7 ] B．ate less food but had more physical activities# V& O. H1 h# T) S C．ate less food and had less physical activities. C9 \" d5 N* g# @7 i. R D．had more problems7 H% b0 Q f5 O" a* Q2 I