## 考点：科普环保类

• We know that many animals do not stay in one place. Birds,fish and other animals move from one place  to another at a certain time. They move for different reasons: most of them move to find food more easily,but others move to get away from places that are too crowded.
When cold weather comes,many birds move to warmer places to find food. Some fishes give birth in warm water and move to cold water to feed. The most famous migration（迁移）is probably the migration of the fish which is called “salmon”.This fish is born in fresh water but it travels many miles to salt water.There it spends its life. When it is old,it returns to its birthplace in fresh water. Then it gives birth and dies. In northern Europe, there is a kind of mouse. They leave their mountain homes when they bccome too crowded. They move down to the low land. Sometimes they move all the way the seadide,and many of them are killed when they fall into the sea.
Recently, scientists have studied the migration of kind of lobster（龙虾）.Every year, when the season of the bad weather arrives, the lobsters get into a long line and start to walk across the floor of the ocean. Nobody knows why they do this, and nobody know where they go.
So,sometimes we know why humans and animals move from one place to another,but at other times we don’t. Maybe living things just like to travel.
【小题1】.Most animals move from one place to another at a certain time to _____
A.give birth        B.enjoy warmer weather   C.find food more easily
【小题2】The fish called “salmon”spends a long time in____
A.salt water        B.rivers                 C.fresh water
【小题3】The mice in northern Europe move when_____
A.they give birth   B.the place gets too crowded
C.they haven’t enough food
【小题4】 The lobsters move_______.
A.to the fresh water   B.at a certain time  C.to find more food
【小题5】What is the main idea of the passage?
A.Animals move to find food more easily.
B.The migration of the fish called“salmon”is the most famous migration.
C.Sometimes we know why and how living things move from one place to another,but sometimes we don’t.

• What makes 15,000 men and women run for hours, and what makes them run through the streets on a cold day without coats? I was one of those runners.  The race is called marathon (马拉松).
I had never run more than eight miles before, and here I was training.  Since the race is in April, I had to run throughout the winter, and in Boston, winters are cold. For most people, just putting on their shirts, sweaters, jackets, and hats is exercise enough. I found myself out on the dark streets, running along ice sidewalks (人行道). Even in gloves, my fingers got so cold that they looked like red carrots. My nose didn’t get warm until lunchtime !
Finally, the big day arrived. The weather was cold, with ice and rain. Bang! The gun sounded, and we started. I didn’t go anywhere at first because I was standing behind so many people. I had to wait for them to move.
At first, the running was easy.  The other runners just seemed to pull me along. Somewhere around the 20-mile mark I even said to myself, "This is nothing, why did I train so hard?"
Then I hit "the wall". "The wall" is what marathon runners call the special point. I knew my body reached the point and I thought I couldn’t go any more. I was out of breath and my legs turned into pieces of wood.  I was almost falling down.  I can’t remember anything about the last five miles of the race.
I kept running though. At last, I heard a voice at the finishing line.
"You look good," my friend Ted said. "How did it feel?"
"Wonderful !" I replied.
For everything, if you devote yourself into it, there will be a way. I finished the race, at least, in my heart, I was the winner.
【小题1】Which one best describes the weather on the race day? A．Cold and rainy.+ Y6 \& H" Y# [0 g" K B．Cold and sunny.- j1 ^& T/ i* a2 h I- I' L) a C．Dry and cloudy.* G1 [! f; Z! O D D．Wet and foggy., b9 ?7 e0 H4 d% X8 \+ G* g
【小题2】 How did the writer feel about the race during the first 20 miles? A．Difficult.8 N/ R! _9 _6 X5 ^) g [/ L B．Boring.7 ^4 j1 g4 A4 G% B& h" Q C．Easy.$N2 L2 @8 T" _: L J. N D．Interesting." E) N% O+ R; ?) G+ J! Y 【小题3】 According to the article, what must someone do to prepare for a marathon? A．One must eat certain food and get plenty of sleep.+ F7 L" W) @6 d: c( f4 N B．One must be willing to eat, sleep, and train twenty-four hours a day.9 B' L: R2 [$ E, N2 F C．One must run along ice sidewalks every day.( W6 J6 D* e& G9 Z D．One must be willing to train a lot and doesn’t give up easily.) @- C( j0 g) G6 J3 O: H
【小题4】Then I hit "the wall". What do you think "hit the wall" means here? A．撞击墙壁( ?5 K& _8 R- R b Q# @; [4 O B．到达极限: K; [% J D; d, D C．抵达终点# e; H/ X* S' \7 h& ?2 d' N8 Q6 B* 8 Q D．中途加速" S: I# d5 S" Q# j* D

• Do you know why you sleep? You may think it’s because you’re tired. Or perhaps you’ve been told sleep is good for you. Yet no one knows exactly why or how people sleep.
Until the early 1950s, most scientists thought the body and brain rested during sleep. Then a scientist watched people sleep. He noticed that during periods of between 5 and 30 minutes each, sleepers’ eyes made rapid movements, as if they were watching something. He called these periods REM sleep, for Rapid Eye Movement. Periods when sleepers’ eyes did not move he called non-REM sleep.
Whenever the scientist woke people during REM sleep, they were having vivid dreams. Measurements showed that sleepers’ pulses（脉搏）went up quickly during REM sleep. Their breathing, heartbeat, and the blood going to the brain also increased. Far from being a time of rest, REM sleep is a time when the body is hard at work. Scientists still don’t know the reason for this. Some believe REM sleep makes learning easier. Babies spend a lot of time in REM sleep. Because of this, some scientists believe that REM sleep helps the brain grow. Others think REM sleep is a time for the brain to empty the day’s garbage.
One thing all the scientists agree on is that sleep is necessary. Without enough sleep, people make mistakes. Most major car accidents happen during the early morning hours, when people are sleepiest.
【小题1】During REM sleep, a person’s breathing and heartbeat ________. A．stop! i h9 D( i: N B．increase( Y0 _$U8 ?7 f+ _4 H+ Z9 U/ j C．decrease1 d+ U5 F# L' W! E3 a% # T D．stay the same8 g P; g1 C! a9 C' F 【小题2】Which word in paragraph（段落）3 means “colorful and lively”? A．easier( c/ Z4 F( i8 ] B．empty3 [3 P5 I2 X3 K; c C．vivid Z. S" J% B2 ]+ j3 P D．quickly3 ]4 A+ @% O8 O* I& K 【小题3】Which paragraph tells what happens when people don’t get enough sleep? A．1* ]0 H5 \# ]+ g. X8 ]) V B．26 Q. ]) : d6 b1 [2 M C．39 H1 G! a5 Q9 b3 f; d( ?5 P D．4! d/ ?# ]6 W6 ]% , ]- P 【小题4】What is the main idea of the article? A．REM sleep helps the brain grow., i6 T1 L- ]$ b, Y2 c- f+ ^5 _; e0 Z B．REM sleep has been watched and recorded by scientists.; f0 G; ^5 D7 V C．REM sleep is a time to empty the day’s garbage.+ e! H& E7 F5 A9 Y; G; K& B9 R+ h D．REM sleep is an active time when the body is hard at work.% \( J2 Q; Q" G
【小题5】You can decide from the article that REM sleep ________. A．has a restful effect on people6 [6 T0 _3 E2 G9 L& N7 I2 U% U B．can be avoided with lots of sleep: E9 _! K0 Q% ?3 N) X- G; S# L C．is something that all people experience# L7 b' j' K3 A/ e D．is something that all scientists agree on2 f8 i# C+ ?: e- \

• Have you ever seen snow? Many people in the world have not. Some countries never have snow; some have only a little on the tops of very high mountains. In the north of England, there is quite a lot of snow every winter, but in the south of England, there is usually little.
When a student from a warm country comes to England in autumn for the first time, he feels cold at first. There are often dark clouds, grey sky and cold rain in England in autumn, and most students from warm countries do not like this.
But snow is different. Though it is cold, it is also beautiful. Perhaps, after several dark mornings, the student wakes up one day, and there is a lot of light in his room. He thinks “Is it so late?” and jumps out of bed. But no, it is not very late. He looks out of the window and there is the snow on the ground and on the houses and everywhere. The light of his room comes from clean, beautiful snow.
【小题1】In which part of England is there much snow in winter? A．In the east. $b. \ a- T: e' W& G# d7 T B．In the north.9 L; K7 f, L9 [# N C．In the west. ( A \( K5 i# Q+ R, j D．In the south.( U N% D, @# g 【小题2】In the autumn of England, we can NOT often see __________. A．grey sky5 V3 [ j; P7 N! V& g) W B．dark clouds ( / P# b4 e0 M) h& R4 h C．strong winds 4 N. Q! ^$ ]+ A/ i( _ D．cold rain Z$F) X2 h' D \5 K2 i3 ] 【小题3】 Why does the student ask himself “Is it so late?” A．Because he has some work to do.5 X- c, M5 " X4  B．Because it is bright in the room.7 J* @- H) F/ G( T9 X9 C" d C．Because it is really late.: A) ]% Z2 V- D, @9 W/ ?" b D．Because he usually gets up early.; Q2 _! Q" g [. [. Q 【小题4】 Which of the following statements is true? A．Every country in the world has snow in winter." \5 _; _) U) F& Y5 F' Q7 D B．Foreign students like the weather in England." E) X: h1 i7 A. G0 E C．It is often very warm in the autumn of England.4 C# _+ Y& h) G8 W$ V D．Many people in the world haven’t seen snow.2 I3 I- A! B! D* i+ C

• Can plant eat people? Probably not. But there are many plants that eat meat. Some of them are big, and they can eat small animals. One famous meat- eating plant is the Venus flytrap(捕蝇草).
The Venus flytrap is a very strange plant. It grows in dry parts of the United States. Its leaves are like the pages of the book.. They can open and close very quickly. Inside the leaves, there are three small hairs. If a fly(苍蝇) touches one of the hairs, the leaf closes very quickly. Then the fly can’t go out. In about half an hour, the leaf presses the fly until it is dead. Then, the plant covers the fly. Slowly, the plant eats the fly. Why do plants do it? Most plants get what they need from the sun, the air, and the ground. In some places, the ground is very poor. It doesn’t have all the important things, especially nitrogen(氮). Animal meat has a lot of nitrogen. So some plants eat meat to get what they need. Let’s hope that some of the bigger plants don’t get the same idea.
根据短文内容判断。
1. The Venus flytrap grows in wet parts of the United States.
2. The Venus flytrap is a kind of plant.
3. The underlined word “presses” probably means（挤、压） in Chinese.
4. In the world, many animals eat plants but plants never eat animals.
5. From the passage, we know that not only animals eat plants, but also some plants eat animals.

• How did we help to save our earth this week? Let me tell you.
First, my family tried to save electrcity (电). We never left the lights  36  when leaving the room. We  37  the TV when nobody was watching it. Mum only used cold water in the washing machine.
Second, we started recycling (回收) this week. We tried to write on  38  of our paper, no just on one side. We also divided our rubbish into  39  bags for bottles, paper and food. Mum kept the plastic shopping bags from the supermarket to use them again as rubbish bags.
Third, my family started to save  40 .We stopped  41  long baths and had short showers (淋浴)  42 . We washed toilet with used water. Mum and dad used less water to do the washing. My sister and I didn’t leave the tap (龙头) running when we brushed our teeth.
At last, mum and dad began to save gas (汽油). Mum used to  43  us to school, but now my sister and I started riding our bikes to school. It’s hard work  44  good exercise!
This week dad and a few of the people in his company also started to go to work in one car and share the  45 .
These are great ways to help protect our environment.
【小题1】) L4 B' f9 V+ L A．out& X1 j, N* P' Z B．on" E& O- \' K5 D( I C．off, D( d G: A* B# H. c7 N D．behind- + g9 V4 g. R8 ^( R
( M& I- Z# Q9 W3 j0 a- G0 c) c4 Q
【小题2】5 d8 ?- e7 X0 D( E, _ A．turn up4 j* G# O/ 0 E1 C# I B．turn on # a! c; i( P% M/ O- M4 M% Q C．turn down ( P2 @/ P6 L: i; ; b$_ D．turn off1 F& ]. S& I& K 4 b2 ?5 f" D) U, V+ h' c. b 【小题3】3 ^0 \6 G" ?% E. M+ ^ A．any side0 O6 L. h, T, S) A* M! Q S. e) j B．all sides, e' j% C4 f' U% ^. \+ C% d+  C．neither side. h- P/ A! i' Z$ ]5 h. W; N4 j D．both sides7 ]3 d+ Q5 O; e, A( X
$@$ E5 b( F, X0 I+ Q/ \
【小题4】5 N) ^: j3 h K- Q# ]" [ A．large ( J% Q T4 ?# M/ T B．small! J3 \% h1 d3 Z4 X+ ^. A8 a! i C．different. [/ L( F+ 5 _( b$j" \ D．the same& c) Y7 g( O' Q/ @ 9 P) d b. K: P L+ L3 H 【小题5】8 P3 W5 O* M+ K0 V: N W A．electricity 1 G& R) O0 J, W% O* ' M9 \/ T B．food + I" M+ C9 B( D C．water, ]# Y$ T4 D5 I D．paper1 B M6 L7 J, [% R+ Q) A
3 A b, P4 E6 M' \' [0 J3 M
【小题6】6 N$N5 M1 @9 g* L- c; f; d A．to use* V# ^# J, a7 Y7 I- W B．making, g1 ?: _2 T' N1 d) ] C．to have! M% @$ f/ C/ Z! G1 K" N D．taking( A/ D/ H6 R' S0 a
% M3 @- L) R2 E$H- B 【小题7】' U% e5 C. T8 ] j8 f% Q- h) M A．again: @- _' I. \$ b" D' \ B．instead3 Z1 h" e* B* I- G3 J G C．already% V$T: L! W% I$ ]* [ D．too* ^) [, U. @5 i- U
) L; N4 ^* X9 Y! V, ^! @% S
【小题8】9 X* A' ' P& j- Z+ _9 C' [ A．drive! ^& O, D* h8 V+ ^ B．order- J" V+ g( ] G, S. b4 P, j2 g; d' [! L C．show9 V3 S6 T! I( Q D．carry# K: W* Z Q' H# A
8 f' O V. ?: F) D" Q2 [
【小题9】
0 j8 B5 f" D6 I' g, T
 A．or8 H! b) h- ];  B．but% ^' ?! ?/ i+ _/ c" ^ C．for) L: ?; U7 \ J9 j D．and7 H% V! Q3 e2 D+ Y+ h, Z4 h. O* j& P/ L
( V; H7 b) I/ ?! I! e
【小题10】$B4 G$ E" F: [4 M A．pay/ V" e0 ?, D" Q& e B．value. @/ F/ C _. _ W H8 C C．cost2 M8 P) L) F- ?1 B D．price# 7 _: a. ' e& _
, G, i7 K4 j f+ [

• Now satellites(卫星)are helping to forecast(预报)the weather. They are in space and they can reach any part of the world.The satellites take pictures of the atmosphere(大气), because this is where the weather forms(形成)。They send these pictures to the weather station. So meteorologists(气象专家)can see the weather of any part of the world. From the pictures, the scientists can often say how the weather will change.
Today, nearly five hundred weather stations in sixty countries receive satellite pictures. When they receive new pictures,the meteor- ologists compare(比较)them with earlier ones. Peerhaps they may find that the clouds have changed during the last few hours .This may mean the weather on the ground may soon change,too. In their next weather forecast, the meteorologists can say this.
So the weather satellites are a great help to the meteorologists. Before satellites were invented, the scientists could forecast the weather for about 24 or 48 hours. Now they can make good forecasts for 3 or 5 days. Soon,perhaps , they may be ablet to forecast the weather for a week or more ahead(提前)
【小题1】Satellites travel__________.
A in space           B in the atmosphere
C above the ground    D above space
【小题2】Why do we use the weather satellites to take pictures of the atmosphere? Because___________.
A the weather satellites can do it easily
B clouds form there
C the weather forms there
D the pictures can forecast the weather
【小题3】 Meteorologists forecast the weather________.
A when they have received satellite pictures
B after they have compared new satellite pictures with earlier ones
C before they receive satellite pictures
D while they study satellite pictures
【小题4】Maybe we’ll soon be able to forecast the weather for _______.
A one day   B two days  C five days   D seven days or even longer
【小题5】The main idea of this passage is that satellite are now used    in______.
A taking pictures of the atmosphere
B receiving pictures of the atmosphere
C doing other work in many ways
D weather forecasting

• Forests have always been useful and important to men who make use of them in many ways. Every day trees are serving man everywhere. Trees supply man with fruits and building materials in the form of wood. Without trees it would be impossible to build houses, boats, bridges and so on. Furniture such as desks, chairs and beds is made of wood. Trees can stop man from the terrible heat. They’re also useful in preventing(阻止) good and rich top soil from being washed away during heavy rains. If there were no forests, heavy rains would wash away the rich surface(表层) soil that is so important to plants. The result is that the land will become a desert. There are plenty of desert areas in the world. A long time ago these desert areas used to be very rich areas, but men in the past had no enough knowledge about science of nature, and they cut down too many trees in the area where they lived and never planted new ones. By and by, the rich surface soil was blown and washed away by strong winds and heavy rains. In the end the rich land changed into useless deserts where nothing could grow.
根据短文内容，判断正（T）误（F）。
1.Trees are not serving man everywhere.
2.Without trees it would be possible to build houses, boats, bridges and so on.
3.Trees can stop man from the terrible heat.
4.There are few desert areas in the world.
5.In the end the rich land changed into useless deserts where nothing could grow.

• Most animals protect(保护) their young until they are old enough to take care of themselves. A fish that swims in the rivers of South America protects its young in a very strange way. This fish, a kind of catfish, uses its mouth to keep its babies from danger(危险).
When this catfish lays(产卵) its eggs, it carries them in its mouth. From what we know, it does not eat during this time. After the eggs hatch(孵化), the fish swims with its young to protect them. It opens its mouth when danger appears(出现), and the tiny fish swim inside. They swim out only when it’s safe again.
These catfish may have a peculiar way to protect their young, but it seems(好像) to work.
【小题1】The best title(标题) is _____________. A．Staying Away From Danger) H7 d1 N/ ^ M B．How A Fish Protect Its Young L" h. f- X, W; V6 h2  C．Laying Eggs* B) D! F" O* d* E2 ) V D．A Cat That Swims9 [& H6 / F2 S: R E# ?% h
【小题2】 The catfish in the story live in _________________. A．lakes& h! L: ^3 X( Z% h# W' I B．the sea) T5 _7 R3 K5 ]1 _4 0 J C．rivers- H( _, b( ]" ]1 H9 A \* G D．North America) J9 f" Y2 C- D
【小题3】The young fish are ____________________. A．tiny7 g4 Y; H/ W( U/ b$M% a; F% ^ B．large: V/ ]7 [, c2 D+ I$ i/ F C．yellow and gold& Q! @ E7 N2 L# g+ ]' a1 j$X6 g D．very brave7 V# T2 R6 H5 U* \4 R 【小题4】If the young fish were not near their parents, they would be ______________. A．safer, U0 T( M7 L$ ?; N( P4 j* h B．in greater danger5 E1 ^& N' E7 \( P P' b7 e C．happier4 N0 X2 I5 Y- T/ b4 ^) g( L D．less hungry1 E4 c* V$Z9 ?1 E) E' D& e6 Q 【小题5】 The word “peculiar” in the story means ________________. A．easy2 b U9 K4 L; E3 K3 Q2 ? B．useless# c' O/ J1 S/ a4 h6 @/ g C．strange9 G( j$ a9 T3 ?6 \ D．dangerous$C' M- O- b& A: Z6 g- c • Zhalong is a nature reserve in Heilongjiang in north-east China. It is one of the world’s most important wetlands. The reserve covers an area of 210,000 hectares. The area provides food and shelter for wildlife. It is an ideal home for different kinds of plants, fish and birds. Many birds live comfortably in Zhalong Nature Reserve all year round, while some only stay there for a short time. There are many fish in the wetlands, and the birds can easily catch them for food. Zhalong has long been called “the home of the crane”. There are 15 crane species (物种) in the world. 8 of them are in China and there are 6 species in Zhalong area. It is an important living area for the rare red-crowned cranes. There are not many red-crowned cranes in the world. Every spring and summer, red-crowned cranes lay and hatch (孵化) their eggs in Zhalong. Some people want to change the wetlands to make more space for farms and buildings. This means there will be less and less space for wildlife. More and more birds are in danger because they do not have enough living space. Many of them died. The Chinese government wants to protect these endangered birds, and they can be safe in Zhalong. Every year, a lot of tourists go to Zhalong to watch birds. This year, members of our Bird-watching Club are going to study the different kinds of birds in Zhalong and the changes in their numbers. The study begins next month. We _______ once a year. We are now inviting secondary school students to help. We need more people to help us count and do something to help the birds. Many people do not understand the importance of the wetlands. We hope this information will help them understand and make them actively take action to protect wildlife. 【小题1】 What does the underlined word “ideal” mean? A．Perfect.7 P( L9 @2 i; $ X# c8 D% 0 B1 _ B．Dangerous.2 A. M8 F; Q0 V1 I3 K( K D* J9 [% @ C．Crowded.7 A& S7 c4 X& Y/ _3 c" V! B D．Expensive.3 ? d\$ X: W- _% M( ]2 Q& c6
【小题2】 What can we learn from the second paragraph? A．All birds stay in Zhalong Nature Reserve all year round.; L* L# Z/ S( h7 j- V B．There are eight species of red-crowned cranes in Zhalong.# Q) f- d# Z# h4 X C．The number of the world’s red-crowned cranes is small.1 c6 V! B- ^9 j8 i( \! C M% M6 E0 T D．Every winter red-crowned cranes hatch eggs in Zhalong.# e; W! R! ]2 C2 K; G" K' ?
【小题3】Which of the following can we choose for the blank (空白) in the fifth paragraph? A．go birdwatching, L% X# V, V2 D6 H B．do a bird count/ j' j; @# Y# L( b* a C．go bird-hunting* U9 L" A/ Z4 j- N% X; _ D．hold a bird show' F& Q8 g* b/ g) [. Y2 S ^6 N
【小题4】The purpose of the article is to _______. A．attract more visitors to pay a visit to Zhalong Nature Reserve , A0 Y/ ]( D/ c* A3 Z/ ] B．ask people to take action to protect wetlands and wildlife" W% g3 X' f. C C．prevent people from watching birds in Zhalong Nature Reserve, ^: j: K) i. L V D．make people around the world know the Birdwatchting Club4 R1 \6 _' G8 W9 e S