考点：科普环保类阅读

• 第三节: 阅读理解 (共15小题；每小题2分，满分30分)
Save the Animals
Animals are natural resources(资源) that people have wasted all through our history.
Animals have been killed for their fur and feathers, for food, for sport, and simply because they were in the way. Thousands of kinds of animals have disappeared from the earth forever. Hundreds more are on the danger list today. About 170 kinds in the United States alone are considered in danger.
Why should people care? Because we need animals. And because once they are gone, there will never be any more.
Animals are more than just beautiful or interesting. They are more than just a source of food. Every animal has its place in the balance of nature. Destroying one kind of animal can create many problems. For example, when farmers killed large numbers of hawks(鹰), the farmers’ stores of corn and grain were destroyed by rats and mice. Why? Because hawks eat rats and mice. With no hawks to keep down their numbers, the rats and mice multiplied(繁殖) quickly.
Luckily, some people are working to help save the animals. Some groups raise money to let people know about the problem. And they try to get the governments to pass laws protecting animals in danger.
Quite a few countries have passed laws. These laws forbid the killing of any animal or plant on the danger list. Slowly, the number of some animals in danger is growing.
41. Animals are important to us mainly because __________.
A . they give us a source of food   B. they are beautiful and lovely
C. they keep the balance of nature   D. they give us a lot of pleasure
42. What has happened to the animals on the earth?
A.About 170 kinds of animals have disappeared forever.
B.Thousands of kinds of animals are gone forever.
C.A few kinds of animals have died out.
D. All kinds of animals are in danger.
43. Why do people kill animals?
A.They kill animals for something they need.
B.They kill animals to raise some money.
C. Animals destroy their natural resources.
D.Animals create many problems.
44. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
A.People care much about animals because they need them.
B.Killing all rats and mice may cause some new problems.
C.Once a certain kind of animal is gone forever, there will never be any more.
D.People must not kill any animal or plant.
45. What can we conclude from the fact that quite a few countries have passed laws protecting animals in danger?
A. Animals in danger will be kept away from people.
B. Animals in danger will not be killed any more.
C. The number of some animals in danger will increase.
D. Every person will know the importance of protecting wild animals.

• The weather predictions for Asia in 2050 read like a script from a doomsday(世界末日，最后审判日)movie. Many climatologists and green groups fear they will come true unless there is a concerted global effort to rein in greenhouse gas emissions.
In the decades to come, Asia -- home to more than half the world's 6.3 billion people -- will lurch（突然倾斜）from one climate extreme to another, with impoverished farmers battling droughts, floods, disease, food shortages and rising sea levels.
"It's not a pretty picture," said Steve Sawyer, climate policy adviser with Greenpeace in Amsterdam. Global warming and changes to weather patterns are already occurring and there is enough excess carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to drive climate change for decades to come.
Already, changes are being felt in Asia but worse are likely to come, Sawyer and top climate bodies say, and could lead to mass migration and widespread humanitarian crises. (人道主义危机)
According to predictions, glaciers will melt faster, some Pacific and Indian Ocean islands will have to evacuate or build sea defenses, storms will become more intense and insect and water-borne diseases will move into new areas as the world warms.
All this comes on top of rising populations and spiraling demand for food, water and other resources. Experts say environmental degradation(环境恶化) such as deforestation(森林砍伐) and pollution will likely magnify the impacts of climate change. In what could be a foretaste of the future, Japan was hit by a record 10 typhoons and tropical storms this year, while two-thirds of Bangladesh, parts of Nepal and large areas of northeastern India were flooded, affecting 50 million people, destroying livelihoods and making tens of thousands ill. The year before, a winter cold snap(寒流，寒潮，骤冷)and a summer heat wave killed more than 2,000 people in India.
59. Which of the following has the similar meaning to rein in?
A. slow down, control        B. increase, enhance    C. bring in                      D. take in
60. According to the passage, which one is true?
A. The changes of weather will never lead to mass migration and widespread humanitarian crises.
B. The number of the population in Asia is the largest of all continents.
C. Global warming and changes will happen in the near future if we don’t take any actions.
D. Deforestation and pollution will not magnify the impacts of climate change.
61. The reason why glaciers will melt faster is that
A. there is more and more carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
B. there is less carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
C. the weather changed suddenly.
D. The reason is still unknown.
62. This passage is mainly about              .
A. what kind of weather we like best.
B. the whole world will not be suitable for us to live in.
C. how to improve our environment.
D. the weather predictions for Asia in the future and the reasons.

• Ocean Acidification: 'Evil Twin' Threatens World's Oceans
The rise in human emissions of carbon dioxide is driving dangerous changes in the chemistry and ecosystems of the world's oceans, international marine（海洋的）scientists have warned. "Ocean conditions are already more extreme than those experienced by marine organisms and ecosystems for millions of years," says the latest issue of the journal Trends in Ecology and Evolution. "This emphasizes the urgent need to adopt policies that markedly reduce CO2 emissions."
Ocean acidification, which the researchers call the 'evil twin of global warming', is caused when the CO2 emitted by human activity, mainly burning fossil fuels, dissolves into the oceans. It is happening independently of, but in combination with, global warming. Evidence gathered by scientists over the last few years suggests that ocean acidification could represent an equal -- or perhaps even greater threat -- to the biology of our planet than global warming. More than 30% of the CO2 released from burning fossil fuels, cement production, deforestation and other human activities goes straight into the oceans, turning them gradually more acidic.
"The resulting acidification will impact many forms of sea life, especially organisms whose shells or skeletons are made from calcium carbonate（碳化钙）, like corals and shellfish. It may interfere with the reproduction of plankton species which are a vital part of the food web on which fish and all other sea life depend," he adds.
The scientists say there is now persuasive evidence that mass extinctions in past Earth history, like the "Great Dying" of 251 million years ago and another wipeout 55 million years ago, were accompanied by ocean acidification, which may have delivered the deathblow to many species that were unable to cope with it. "These past periods can serve as great lessons of what we can expect in the future, if we continue to push the acidity the ocean even further" said lead author, Dr. Carles Pelejero, from ICREA and the Marine Science Institute of CSIC in Barcelona, Spain. "Given the impacts we see in the fossil record, there is no question about the need to immediately reduce the rate at which we are emitting carbon dioxide in the atmosphere," he said further.
"Today, the surface waters of the oceans have already acidified by an average of 0.1 pH units from pre-industrial levels, and we are seeing signs of its impact even in the deep oceans," said co-author Dr. Eva Calvo, from the Marine Science Institute of CSIC in Spain. "Future acidification depends on how much CO2 humans emit from here on -- but by the year 2100 various projections indicate that the oceans will have acidified by a further 0.3 to 0.4 pH units, which is more than many organisms like corals can stand," Prof. Hoegh-Guldberg says.
"This will create conditions not seen on Earth for at least 40 million years."
"These changes are taking place at rates as much as 100 times faster than they ever have over the last tens of millions of years" Prof. Hoegh-Guldberg says. Besides directly impacting on the fishing industry and its contribution to the human food supply at a time when global food demand is doubling, a major die-off in the oceans would affect birds and many land species and change the biology of Earth as a whole profoundly, Prof. Hoegh-Guldberg adds.
67. What is the biggest cause of the ocean acidification according to the report?
A. the increase of carbon dioxide emission by human beings
B. The worsening of global warming
C. The disappearance of the world’s forests
D. The decrease of marine life
68. In what way according to the report does ocean acidification affect the majority of marine life?
A. It affects their reproduction          B. It destroys their food chain
C. It affects the growth of their young    D. destroys their habitats
69. Which of the following statements is NOT true about ocean acidification?
A. Ocean acidification has made ocean conditions most extreme in millions of years.
B. Ocean acidification may do more damage than global warming to human and plant life in the long run.
C. Ocean acidification is suspected of having caused mass extinctions of life in past Earth history.
D. The effects of ocean acidification are not now but will be felt in the foreseeable future.
70. From the report we can clearly feel that the situation with ocean acidification __________.
A. is quite optimistic                B. remains well under control
C. looks more than urgent            D. is already out of control

• Most sharks are dangerous. The largest kind of sharks—the whale shark—has small teeth and is quite harmless to people. However, blue sharks, tiger sharks, white sharks and hammerheads are enemies of man.
Man-eaters are always a danger to swimmers in shark waters. Sometimes, though, men have used strange methods when they’re suddenly faced with a shark.
During world War Ⅱ, soldiers and sailors whose boats or planes were destroyed drifted(漂流) helplessly on the ocean in small rafts(筏子). While waiting to be saved, the men had to struggle to stay alive and were often attacked by sharks. In some cases, they had few weapons to protect themselves with. They found that just splashing(溅水) water seemed to help keep the sharks away.
One sailor was swimming for his life in the Atlantic Ocean after his boat had been blown up. He saw a shark swimming towards him. He hit the shark with his bare fist, and that drove it off.
Once, in Australia, a fisherman was fishing after sunset. He hooked a big fish and drew it towards the shore. His line broke when the fish was only a few yards from the shore. The fisherman waded(涉水) into the water to try to catch it with his hands. In the dim light, it looked like the kind of fish that could be dealt with without danger.
He put his arms around the fish and wrestled with it. Dragging it to the beach turned out to be harder than he had expected, but at last he pulled it in. When he turned a light on it, he was amazed. He had caught a shark. It was small for a shark, but it was the man-eating type and was about as long as a tall man.In a word, the best way to deal with sharks is to keep far away from them.
60. The shark that is least dangerous to man is the ________.
A. white shark      B. whale shark   C. tiger shark     D. hammerhead shark
61. This story tells you that sharks are usually ________.
A. friendly         B. small         C. afraid of people     D. dangerous
62. After the Australian fisherman found he had caught a shark, he was _________.
A. surprised      B. frightened      C. unhappy      D. angry
63. This story tells you that the best way to handle sharks is to ________.
A. hit them with your fist                 B. keep far away from them
C. splash water                         D. wrestle with them
64. The passage mainly tells us something  ________.
C. how to eat  sharks                   D. that sharks are man’s enemies

• Scientists say the warming of the Earth’s atmosphere has begun to affect plant and animal life a
round the world. Scientists from the University of Hanover in Germany reported their findings in Nature. They say global warming is affecting endangered  species, sea life, and the change in seasonal activities of organisms. Global warming is caused by carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere.
Studies show that the Earth’s climate has warmed by about six tenths of one degree Celsius during the past one hundred years. Most of the increase has taken place in the last thirty years. German scientists have studied different animal and plant population around the world during the past thirty years. They say some species will disappear because they cannot move to new areas when their home climate gets too warm.
The scientists say one of the biggest signs of climate change has been the worldwide decrease in coral reefs. Rising temperatures in the world’s warm ocean waters have caused coral to lose color and die. In the coldest areas of the world, winter freezing periods are now happening later and ending earlier. Researchers say these changes are having severe effects on animals such as penguins, seals, and polar bears.
Changes in temperature and wetness in the air can also affect the reproduction (繁殖) of some reptiles(爬行动物) and amphibians(两栖动物). For example, the sex of baby turtles is linked to the average temperature in July. Scientists say even small temperature increases can threaten the production of male turtles.
In Europe, scientists say warmer temperatures are affecting the spring and autumn seasons. This is affecting the growth of plants and delaying the flight of birds from one place to another.
Scientists are concerned about invasions of warm weather species into traditionally colder areas. Rising temperature has been linked with the spread of diseases in areas such as Asia, East Africa, and Latin America.
44. The best title for this passage would be __________.
A. Effects of Global Warming   B. Temperature and Animals
C. Global Warming and the Environment D. A Study on the Environment
45. According to the passage, global warming is affecting all of the following, EXCEPT _________.
A. endangered species            B. sea life
C. activities of organisms        D. the color of turtles
46. We can learn from this passage that _________.
A. the speed of the earth’s warming is faster now than 50 years ago
B. more animal species will soon come into being
C. animals will refuse to move to warm places in the future
D. cold areas have gained more heat than warm places
47. If the temperature in the Arctic Ocean keeps going up, which of the following will be most likely to happen?
A. More and more people will come to live near the Arctic Ocean.
B. More crops will be grown near the Arctic Ocean.
C. Animals from warm areas will come to live in the Arctic Ocean.
D. There will be more and more fish in the Arctic Ocean.

• Our surrounding(周围) is being polluted faster than nature and man’s present efforts can’t prevent it. Time is bringing us more people, and more people will bring us more industry, more cars, larger cities, and the growing use of man-made materials.
What can explain and solve this problem? The fact is that pollution is caused by man—by his desire for a modern way of life. We make “increasing industrialization” our chief aim. So we are always ready to offer everything: clean air, pure water, good food, our health and the future of our children. There is a constant flow of people from countryside to cities, eager for the benefit of our modern society. But as our technological achievements have grown in the last twenty years, pollution has become a serious problem.
Isn’t it time we stopped to ask ourselves where we are going—and why? It makes one think of the story about the airline pilot who told his passengers over the loudspeaker, “I’ve some good news and some bad news. The good news is that we’re making rapid progress at 530 miles per hour. The bad news is that we’re lost and don’t know where we’re going.” The sad fact is that this becomes a true story when spoken of our modern society.
【小题1】Man can’t prevent the world from being polluted mainly because        . A．many man-made materials* g( R% [+ T1 L B．more cars, trucks and buses2 ]( F$Y& \! @1 U# D C．more people and more industry( @8 N8 j' a. Y$ O' ^" J D．more cities4 b4 G9 B, O/ b, e1 ?" S. F
【小题2】People crowd into the cities because_________.  A．they want very much to find well-paid jobs# ^/ X, [2 O4 L2 B M* H/ ^0 W B．they eager for the achievement of our modern society' g0 ( B# f5 E/ X+ j: E C．they have become tired of their homeland, g; B% j; U. h% U D．they have a strong wish to become industrial workers% ^+ b7 @9 J% [ d5 X: E [* L; O
【小题3】The story about the airline pilot tells us that_________. A．man knows where the society is going7 N7 _+ T' X; @: g) V B．people do not welcome the rapid development of modern society* @$C- - i& G/ D C．man can do little about the problem of pollution# W7 X. E5 R3 R2 U5 7 ]1 f D．the writer is worried about the future of our society. B! Z$ Y2 g. B; F* \
【小题4】What does the writer really want to say in this passage? A．With the development of technology, pollution has become a serious problem./ B& Y* M9 [1 E! A7 F' W3  B．Lower the speed of development to stop pollution.$d- K9 [1 J5 Z' [ C．It’s time we did something to reduce pollution./ O& ]8 ! P* e/ C2 ?+ S$ b D．As industry is growing fast, pollution is the natural result.4 K( D- O) \7 Q9 Z/ N

•   Environmental protection is frequently talked about nowadays. The authorities are doing their best to arise the public awareness of the vital importance of the environmental protection. This issue is, indeed, worth following up.
Environmental protection is closely related not only to our personal life, but also to the entire human race and the world’s further development. For one thing, the environment, in a narrow sense, determines the quality of our individual life. The air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we eat, etc. , all come directly from the environment. If they continue to be contaminated, we may have neither clean water, nor healthy food. For another thing, in a broader sense, the environment plays a decisive role in fate of mankind. As is known to all, the earth, up to now, is human being’s only dwelling place. We can expect that some day we will live on another planet, but I doubt that this day will come earlier than the day when the earth becomes a globe of waste, if we keep damaging the environment. Finally, the environment is essential to the further development of the world. Extensive industrialization, which has brought about all the convenience and facilities we enjoy today, has been depending on the comprehensive exploitation of the earth’s natural resources found in the environment. If we do not protect the environment properly, further development cannot be guaranteed. In a word, to protect the environment is an urgent task.
Nevertheless, environmental protection is indeed a demanding task. Many people are still, either unconscious of the urgency of the task or deliberately damaging the environment for the interests of their own. Hence, we should adopt severe measures to prohibit people from doing more harms to the environment. Meanwhile, we need to make the gravity of the present situation known to all. In other words, punishment and instruction should be equally emphasized. Only in this way can we look forward to a cleaner and greener world.
【小题1】.
. What does the underlined word contaminated（in paragraph 2）probably refer to? A．polluted B．protected C．wasted D．guaranteed
【小题2】.
The author’s purpose in writing the passage is to ________. A．stress the importance of protecting environment B．enjoy beautiful environment happily C．try to develop our industrialization fast D．take severe measures to the environmental destroyers
【小题3】.
. From the passage we can know that ________. A．environmental protection is indeed a demanding task to our government B．not all the people in the world realize the urgency of the task C．only a few people are damaging the environment on purpose D．some day we will live on another planet before the earth is damaged

• If your mother wants to tell you something, she uses words. Birds can not talk as we do. But some birds can make sounds to warn their young of danger. They have their own ways to make the young birds do certain thing.
The jackdaw is a kind of blackbirds that lives in Europe. Jackdaws live together in flocks. ( 群) Yong jackdaws do not know their enemies. When an older jackdaw sees a dog , it makes a loud tattling (格格响的)sound.The young birds know this sound means an enemy is nearby.  The sounds warns them to know their enemy.
If a young jackdaw is in a dangerous place, a jackdaw parent flies over him from behind.The parent bird flies low over the young bird’s back, the parents’ tail feathers move quickly from side to side, It is trying to say, “ Follow me.”
At the same time , the parent calls out, “ Key-aw ,Key-aw.” The parent means, “ Fly home with me.” The young bird then follows the older one home.
Young jackdaws do not have to learn what certain sounds mean.They know the meaning of these sounds from the time they hatch.
【小题1】The jackdaw lives in _____ . A．Europe9 f0 b: h! O D B．Australia/ D1 O( F- B$Z' b3 F C．America) h/ d! W. R/ X D．Africa4 d( h# a* ?3 0 P6 g1 [ 【小题2】When an old jackdaw sees a dog , it _____ .  A．calls out “Follow me .”/ \4 b# W1 Y" @! P B．makes a loud sound* O$ \- \% \6 h/ E4 S, h C．flies away3 ]6 B" a' e. I" g' \ D．fights the dog .7 c+ Q8 H3 T [: B3 h! T
【小题3】 Parent jackdaw can use their tail feathers to ______ .  A．ask their young to follow them4 _7 S/ @" _. ^4 ^1 _1 e V2 J$X B．play a game with the young ! O& a% Q3 f1 b& d" c) H C．tell the meal time$ [: X1 K& O. A- X D．give a warning of a fire1 O# Y% \# J% L( Z" Z' H
【小题4】The story tells much about _____ .  A．the danger of jackdaws.7 d7 [# M6 I R% D2 b! W* D* O B．in which mother can talk to their children.0 i3 U' J2 E4 _+ P; b% G! Y C．the way jackdaws warn their young of danger.7 ?/ J Q+ B8 A8 T# F7 W/ W D．how the jackdaws are living.9 U1 J0 G' _$U" R, H( h 【小题5】 Which of the following does this story lead you to believe ?  A．All animal parents can talk to their young. " ?! @5 C4 Z: e3 N& M$ \4 c B．Dogs are the most dangerous enemies for jackdaws. ; b/ X" h' ]6 g$U C．Young jackdaws know the meaning of their parents’ sound when they grow older . , X/ b4 i4 M- i% B9 N, _% g+ O* Z D．Some birds can give certain information to one another.2 R7 L4 A1 ], c3 E9 f5 R- $ N. M

• In 1620, about half the USA was covered by forests． Today the forests have almost gone． A lot of good land has gone with them, leaving only sand． China doesn’t want to copy the USA’s example． We’re planting more and more trees． We’ve built the " Great Green Wall" of trees across northern part of our country．The Great Green Wall is 7,000 kilometres long, and between 400 and 1,700 kilometres wide． It will stop the wind from blowing the earth away． It will stop the sand from moving towards the rich farmland in the south． More "Great Green Walls" are needed． Trees must be grown all over the world． Great Green Walls will make the world better．
【小题1】In 1620, about ______ the USA was covered by forests． A．a third) I% C6 \: O" P+ e B．half! J! B% M5 J0 h9 I5 X! c C．two thirds' M' $O% T/ S: E D．a fourth6 D/ S: i$ T4 M1 @2 T X6 P
【小题2】A lot of good land has gone with ______． A．sand8 L$H/ D9 i$ H! B$@" h M9 J B．water; c: N: W" i5 e& j* T8 [ C．wind' U1 \9 Z7 ]. X( S D．forests0 M0 g* T" ^7 J; N: h 【小题3】The Great Green Wall in China is ______ long． A．7,000 kilometers3 3 \! M: N9 V+ V6 Q B．1,700 kilometers$ D! I* E9 B8 e6 E C．7,000 meters. ]8 Y2 Q7 R+ b; _- M& O D．400 kilometers; K4 h7 * ( M Y
【小题4】Trees must be grown in ______. A．China8 c0 Q! f1 g5 L/ d% E B．the USA 3 i5 Y: L ]. j C．some countries4 1 g% ?0 ?( g+ S D．every part of the world) C) [3 @+ d, P0 [
【小题5】_____ will make the world better． A．The Great Wall4 T1 ]! V! S/ d9 E' I1 ^+ E2 C B．Tall buildings - K. _7 [* G0 E9 b C．Great Green Walls% B, M4 R9 g9 Q0 H5 N) S% D6 S D．Flowers and grass3 B6 j3 S0 d3 @4 d8 ?5 J- M

• Recreational tree climbing is taking root in the ecotourism industry, and it's sending guys like Tim Kovar to far off reaches of the globe. Kovar, a tree-climbing instructor, recently returned to the U.S. from Brazil, where he spent time developing a tree-climbing operation thanks to the "slow travel" movement.
Slow travel, is like the slow food movement, the practice of giving fast food in favor of homegrown cooking—the kind that takes hours to prepare and enjoy. Likewise, slow travel urges visitors to experience a place's natural surroundings and learn about the ecology in a way not afforded by extreme games.
"Tree climbing is a slow activity," says Kovar. "It's not something you do quickly and then you're on to the next thing or event." There is no such thing as a quick climb, especially for beginners. This wasn't a race against the clock or the fellow climbers. In fact, tree climbing is unlikely to ever become a feature of the extreme games. Many climbers refuse competition. There has already been so much competition in the world.
"When you stand below the tree, it can be amazing," Rusel DeMaria says, looking affectionately up at Michael's Triumph, a 150-foot-tall tree. But reaching the treetop, he adds, is an entirely different feeling. Likewise, his wife, Viola Brumbaugh, kneels on the ground and asks Michael's Triumph for permission to climb. "It goes a lot smoother that way, "She says.
And climbing has been included into many educational programs. New Tribe offers guided climbs through its school, Tree Climbing Northwest, where "we teach enough tree biology and forest ecology to raise awareness in our students," says New Tribe present Sophis Sparks. "We know that the tree climbing experience deepens personal appreciation for trees. After climbing, people value trees more and are motivated to support preservation. This is not just to preserve their playground."
Perhaps that is why he struggles with the term "recreational tree climbing," saying, "I prefer to call it inspirational tree climbing."
【小题1】What do slow travel and the slow food movement have in common? A．They take people a long time.0 \. A' E; J T" S3 \' f B．They are related to the eco-tourism industry. 7 \6 f% e% H X& G: P1 F C．They advocate protecting nature., f2 g7 W! K2 \. B D．They cost people little money: ^9 [4  c& Z7 V+ I
【小题2】What do we know about tree climbing from the passage? A．People compete to see who can climb to the top first.* Z C# M& T0 W0 L B．It favors the experience of enjoying nature.* e3 ^" [4 A( J3 G- \ C．It is a kind of extreme sport and needs a lot of effort.. c+ S% h7 g h0 C/ i: j. [ D．People view it as a challenge to climb the tallest tree in a forest.; @' _( A% ?4 H X6 U
【小题3】Brumbaugh kneels on the ground before climbing trees to ___________________. A．beg for the safety of climbing6 ^% 4 F K4 @3 U2 G0 ^ B．Expect to climb faster than her husband * O9 I) \- d2 j$A: T C．Show respect for the tree' @; ?/ V! ^. M4 \2 _& \/ F D．ask for permission of her husband 4 d. i5 J9 H- D0 _ 【小题4】Sophia Sparks prefers the term "inspirational tree climbing" because it ____________. A．provide people with more chances to play outside& g4 c5 Q8 B- @& A2 P0 ?' f B．bring a lot of pleasure to life 9 Z- H9 F4 M5 V( ]8 A- W C．Deepens personal love between each other ( f# T6 E: _$ ]1 G! G4 X& T1 D" T D．Makes people realize they should protect trees! j: L+ j( W1 N# W( D
【小题5】What's the best title for the passage? A．Tree-climbing travelling" H6 Y! N: f. _- N c B．Slow travel movements! R* [3 d' d/ I( Z, U( E* D C．Dangers of climbing+ M# h/ C/ I1 e9 a4 F# f" \ G D．Respect for nature$h1 Z. P$ ]( U: V# d" ]`